Understanding Biological Hazards in the Workplace: Types, Examples, and Safety Solutions

Understanding workplace biological hazards is vital for a secure work environment. Learn more about the types, examples, and solutions here.

Last Updated on January 21, 2024 by Ossian Muscad

Every day, workers face a variety of hazards in the workplace. Among these are biological hazards, which can present a serious risk to employees’ safety and health. Every workplace is filled with biological hazards, and as an employer, you are responsible for ensuring that your employees are protected from these dangers.

Unfortunately, without proper knowledge and safety solutions, determining and eliminating these hazards can be hard. If left unchecked, biological hazards can seriously threaten your entire company. That’s why it’s worth delving into this issue and understanding what biological hazards are, their different types, some common examples, and how to create a safe workplace for your employees.

This article will discuss these topics to equip you with the necessary knowledge to keep your workplace safe.


What are Biological Hazards?

Biological hazards, or biohazards, are agents that can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. It pertains to any biological materials, including plants, animals, and their by-products or microorganisms that threaten the health of humans and animals. 

These hazards can come in many forms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and toxins. Biological hazards can cause illnesses, from minor skin infections to life-threatening diseases. They can be found in nature, or they can be created in a lab. It’s essential to handle potential biohazards with extreme caution as they can potentially cause harm that can be fatal in certain circumstances.

Biological hazards are found in workplaces such as healthcare facilities, laboratories, and industrial plants. In some cases, biological hazards, such as water or soil, may be present in the environment. Workers can also be exposed to biological hazards through contact with infected animals or people.

Since biohazards are everywhere, it’s essential to be familiar with them to know how to address potential risks your employees may face. In addition, employers need to establish safety guidelines to protect their employees from these hazards while on duty.


4 Types of Biological Hazards

Biological hazards are among the most common workplace safety concerns. These hazards are classified into four major types or categories that can help employers identify potential hazards and determine the appropriate safety measures. These categories include the following:

Biological Agents

Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microorganisms that can lead to harm through infection, allergy, or toxicity. These agents can be naturally occurring or artificially created and are commonly found in healthcare settings, laboratories, and even offices. For example, workers in a healthcare facility can be exposed to potentially harmful bacteria or viruses from sick patients, while employees in a lab can be in contact with artificially created biohazards.


Biotoxins are poisonous substances living organisms produce, often as a defense mechanism. These toxins can be produced by various microorganisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals. Workers in industries such as agriculture, food processing, and fishing may be exposed to these toxins. The effects of biotoxins can range from mild irritation to severe symptoms, such as paralysis or even death.

Blood and Related Products

Handling blood and related products presents another significant biohazard risk in the workplace. This is particularly true in medical and laboratory settings, where employees may come into contact with patient’s blood or body fluids. In addition, workers in the tattooing and body piercing industry and first responders are also at risk. Exposure to blood-borne pathogens, such as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, or HIV, can lead to severe illnesses.

Environmental Specimens

Environmental specimens, such as soil and water samples, can also pose a biological hazard. These specimens can harbor a range of biological agents, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, potentially harmful to humans. Workers in fields such as environmental science, agriculture, or construction, who frequently handle these specimens, are at risk. It’s crucial to handle these samples with care and use appropriate protective equipment to prevent exposure to potential biohazards.


10 Examples of Biological Hazards

So, what is an example of a biological hazard? As mentioned, biohazards can take many forms and are present in various industries. Here are ten common examples of biological hazards that employees may encounter in the workplace:

Blood (Humans and Animals)

Bodily fluids and tissues containing blood, plasma, serum, and other blood components in liquid or semi-liquid form can potentially transmit harmful pathogens. Handling and disposing of these materials properly is crucial to prevent the spread of infections. Additionally, healthcare professionals should strictly adhere to universal precautions when dealing with such substances to ensure the safety of both themselves and others.

Animal Waste

Any animal body part or bedding of infected animals can also pose a potential biohazard. It is important to handle and dispose of these materials properly to prevent the spread of harmful bacteria, viruses, and parasites that can lead to infections. Additionally, wearing appropriate protective gear when dealing with such biohazards is crucial for personal safety.

Human Bodily Matter

This includes saliva, sweat, urine, feces, vomit, and mucus. In addition, they may contain harmful pathogens that can cause infections. Therefore, direct contact with human bodily matter in the workplace is highly risky, especially for healthcare workers. It is crucial to follow proper hygiene protocols and use personal protective equipment to minimize the risk of exposure and transmission.

Pathological Waste

Pathological waste refers to any human or animal material, including body parts, organs, tissues, and body fluids, removed during surgery or autopsy. This waste may contain harmful pathogens that can spread disease if handled inappropriately. Workers in healthcare and laboratory settings and waste disposal personnel must adhere to strict handling and disposal procedures to avoid exposure to these biological hazards.

Microbiological Waste

Microbiological waste includes waste from laboratory work involving the culture, storage, or manipulation of organisms that could be infectious to humans. This can encompass items such as petri dishes, culture flasks, pipettes, and other equipment used in microbiology labs. Workers in scientific research labs, healthcare facilities, and pharmaceutical companies will likely encounter this biological hazard.

Molds and Yeast

Molds and yeasts are ubiquitous in the environment and can pose a significant biohazard, particularly in workplaces with damp conditions or poor ventilation. These fungi can cause various health issues, ranging from allergic reactions to serious respiratory conditions. Employees in industries such as construction, agriculture, and food processing are particularly at risk, emphasizing the need for proactive mold and yeast control measures.

Sharp Waste

Sharp waste refers to any biological waste that can pierce the skin, including needles, scalpels, and broken glass that have come into contact with bio-hazardous material. Workers in healthcare, laboratories, and waste disposal are most at risk from sharp-related injuries, which can lead to severe infections. Proper training on handling, storage, and disposal of sharps can significantly reduce the risk of accidental injuries.

Airborne Pathogens

Pathogenic microbes are small organisms that can cause infections. They can be found in the air, surfaces, or water. These biological hazards are commonly found in healthcare settings and can be easily transmitted to patients and healthcare workers through coughing, sneezing, and direct or close contact. It is crucial to implement strict infection control measures to prevent their spread and protect the well-being of individuals.

Organic Material

Workers are also exposed to rubbish, sewage and wastewater, organic dust, and plant materials. These can contain biological pathogens that can cause infections and respiratory problems. Workers exposed to these hazards should take necessary precautions to protect their health and well-being.

Stinging Insects

Since these can be found in various regions worldwide, stinging insects are dangerous to indoor and outdoor workers. Such insects include bees, hornets, yellow jackets, and wasps. They can sting humans and animals, and their venom can cause severe reactions in some people. Since these stinging insects pose a significant threat to indoor and outdoor workers, it is crucial to take necessary precautions to avoid potential stings and subsequent severe reactions.


Biohazard Safety Levels

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), biological hazards are categorized into four biosafety levels. Each of these levels has specific controls to contain biological agents and microbes. 

Biohazard Level 1 (BSL-1)

Biohazard Level 1 represents the lowest level of risk and pertains to working with agents that pose minimal threat to humans and the environment. Such biological agents are not known to cause disease in healthy adult humans, and examples include non-pathogenic strains of E. coli and other bacteria and viruses commonly used in teaching laboratories. 

The protocols for BSL-1 labs focus on teaching good hygiene practices, such as regular hand washing and prohibiting eating or drinking in the lab. In general, BSL-1 labs require no special containment equipment or design features.

Biohazard Level 2 (BSL-2)

Biohazard Level 2 is used for work involving agents that pose a moderate hazard to personnel and the environment. These agents are commonly found in the community and present a limited risk of transmission. Diseases associated with these pathogens are usually mild and treatable, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Hepatitis A. 

BSL-2 labs require more stringent safety measures than BSL-1 labs, including the use of personal protective equipment, self-closing doors, and labs designed to be easily cleaned. There should also be restricted access during work operations.

Biohazard Level 3 (BSL-3)

Biohazard Level 3 applies to clinical, diagnostic, teaching, research, and production facilities where work is performed with indigenous or exotic agents that present a potential for aerosol or respiratory transmission and which may cause severe or potentially fatal diseases. 

Examples of these pathogens include tuberculosis bacteria or the West Nile virus. BSL-3 laboratories have special engineering and design features to prevent microorganisms from escaping, such as special ventilation systems and double-door entrances to create airlocks.

Biohazard Level 4 (BSL-4)

Biohazard Level 4 is reserved for the most dangerous and exotic agents that pose a high individual risk of aerosol-transmitted infections and life-threatening diseases. Examples are the Ebola and Marburg viruses. BSL-4 labs have the most stringent protocols specifically designed to prevent the release of dangerous microbes. 

Workers must wear full body, positive pressure suits and shower upon exiting the lab. These labs are often separate from other areas and have dedicated air and water treatment systems.



The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) passed the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations in 2002 (COSHH). This regulation is meant to protect workers from exposure to biological agents. Under this law, all employers must protect their workers and other people from the hazards of harmful substances. It will be enforced by doing the following:

  1. Identify Hazards, both present, potential, and new biological hazards.
  2. Control the risks to protect workers from
  3. Create and instill control measures to reduce health risks.
  4. Decide how to prevent harm through conducting risk assessments.
  5. Provide adequate training, information, and instructions to employees. 
  6. Maintain control measures and keep them in good working order.
  7. Establish emergency action plans related to dealing with biohazards
  8. Ensure proper monitoring and surveillance of employee health and well-being.


How to Manage and Control Biological Hazards in the Workplace

Managing and controlling biological hazards in the workplace is a multifaceted process that involves several strategies and measures. These measures help to minimize exposure to these risks and ensure the health and safety of employees. This section will discuss some key strategies and measures to manage and control biological hazards.

Risk Assessment

Before implementing any measures, conducting a thorough risk assessment of the workplace is essential to identify potential biological hazards. This involves examining all areas of the workplace, understanding the nature of the work performed, and identifying processes or situations that may expose workers to biological hazards. Once the risks are identified, they should be categorized based on their severity and likelihood, which will help in prioritizing the control measures.

Implementation of Control Measures

After identifying and assessing the risks, appropriate control measures should be implemented to manage these hazards. This could include administrative controls such as providing training to workers, developing safe work procedures, or implementing vaccination programs for certain biological hazards. Physical controls, such as installing proper ventilation systems, using protective equipment, or ensuring safe waste disposal practices, may also be required.

Regular Monitoring and Review

Once the control measures have been implemented, regular monitoring is crucial to ensure their effectiveness. This would involve routine inspections, worker health surveillance, and reviewing incident reports. If any issues are identified, the control measures should be reviewed and updated accordingly. This ensures that the workplace remains safe and the risk of exposure to biological hazards is minimized.


Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q1: How to identify a biological hazard in the workplace?

Identifying biological hazards involves:

  • Understanding the nature of the work performed.
  • Observing the work environment.
  • Recognizing situations that may expose workers to biological agents.


This could include direct contact with people, animals, or biological waste, working in a damp environment prone to mold, or handling materials that could contain pathogens. At the same time, keeping up to date with any new or emerging biological hazards is essential to ensure proper risk assessment and control measures are in place.

Q2: How often should risk assessments for biohazards be conducted?

Risk assessments should be conducted regularly, ideally at least once or twice a year. However, they should also be conducted whenever there is a significant change in the work process or environment, when new information about a biological agent becomes available or if there is reason to believe that the existing assessment may no longer be valid. By regularly conducting risk assessments, potential hazards can be identified and controlled in a timely manner.

Q3: What’s the role of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in controlling biohazards?

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is a physical barrier between workers and biological hazards. PPE can prevent exposure to biological agents through inhalation, skin contact, or accidental ingestion. Notable examples of PPE for biological hazards include the following:

  • Gloves
  •  Masks
  • Gowns
  • Face shields
  • Respirators
  • Boot covers

Q4: What to do when exposed to a biological hazard at work?

If you believe you have been exposed to a biological hazard, you should immediately report the incident to your supervisor or employer, seek medical advice, and document the incident. Your employer should have protocols in place to respond to such incidents. In addition, you should also take precautions to prevent the spread of any potential infection by washing your hands thoroughly and avoiding contact with others until receiving medical advice.

Q5: What are some preventive measures against workplace biohazards?

Preventive measures against biological hazards can include:

  • Good hygiene practices.
  • Use of proper personal protective equipment.
  • Regular cleaning and disinfecting of the workplace.
  • Implementing a vaccination program if applicable.
  • Providing training to workers on how to handle biological hazards safely.


Apart from these measures, it is crucial to regularly review and update risk assessments and control measures to ensure a safe working environment. Following these preventive measures can significantly reduce the risk of exposure to biological hazards in the workplace.

Q6: Is there any specific training required for managing biohazards in the workplace?

Yes, it is essential to provide adequate training to employees on identifying, assessing, and controlling biological hazards in the workplace. This could include training on the proper use of personal protective equipment, safe handling and disposal of biological waste, understanding emergency response procedures, and recognizing potential signs and symptoms of exposure to biological agents. Regular training and refresher courses help ensure that employees are knowledgeable and prepared to handle biohazards effectively in the workplace.


Monitor Biohazards with DATAMYTE

DATAMYTE is a quality management platform with low-code capabilities. Our Digital Clipboard, in particular, is a low-code workflow automation software that features a workflow, checklist, and smart form builder. This tool lets you create, manage, and deploy processes that help you monitor biohazards effectively in your workplace.

DATAMYTE also lets you conduct layered process audits, a high-frequency evaluation of critical process steps, focusing on areas with the highest failure risk or non-compliance. Conducting LPA with DATAMYTE lets you effectively identify and correct potential defects before they become major quality issues.

With DATAMYTE, you have an all-in-one solution for your quality management needs, including monitoring and controlling biological hazards in the workplace. Contact us today to learn more about how DATAMYTE can help you ensure a safe and healthy work environment for your employees.



Biological hazards in the workplace pose a significant risk to the health and safety of employees. Organizations must implement robust systems and procedures for identifying, assessing, and controlling these hazards. Regular risk assessments, diligent use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), sound hygiene practices, and targeted employee training are all fundamental to managing these risks effectively.

Furthermore, quick and appropriate responses to any potential exposure incidents are vital to ensure the well-being of the workforce. In essence, a proactive approach to managing biological hazards enhances workplace safety and contributes to the workforce’s overall productivity and morale.



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